Many a times when I visit farmers for poultry disease diagnosis I usually find out that some diseases are mostly caused by poor building of poultry structures.Note that management plays a huge role in entry of diseases in the farm.
Bird quantity feeding on ground
Before embarking on construction first consider the number of birds you intend to keep. Layers occupy 2 square feet per bird while broilers occupy 1 square feet per bird. For example if you intend to keep 1000 layer birds the house should measure 100ft by 20ft. The same house can accomodate 2000 broilers.
How is a poultry structure supposed to be?
The house orientation (the width) is supposed to face the east-west direction.This ensures that the sunlight strikes through the whole house.The light is important in that it stimulates ovulation in layer birds.The light also enables the birds to see feeders and drinkers and so reach for feeds and water.
The height of the wall from the ground is supposed to be 3ft high(1m) while the height of the house from the floor to the roof is supposed to be 7ft minimum. At least two sides of the house should be covered with wire mesh (chicken wire) and canvas. Direction from which the wind is blowing from should be covered.
The floor needs to be built using concrete to enable easier cleaning and prevent dampness.
A foot dip needs to be constructed at the door. This is where the disinfectant will be placed.Most farmers ignore this and this is how diseases enter your farm.
The floor design is very different between ground feeding and chicken cage, manure scrapers sometimes works with chicken cage, poultry house floor will build pits as width of scraper.
Feed store room
Make room for a feeds store which should be rodent proof. The house should not have access to rodents or wild birds.
Different farms need different design, like security room, egg stock room, broiler processing room and so on.